Group homes



Group Homes 796
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Definition

Group homes are small, residential facilities located within a community and designed to serve children or adults with chronic disabilities. These homes usually have six or fewer occupants and are staffed 24 hours a day by trained caregivers.

Description

Most group homes are standard, single-family houses, purchased by group home administrators and adapted to meet the needs of the residents. Except for any adaptive features such as wheelchair ramps, group homes are virtually indistinguishable from other homes in the surrounding neighborhood. Group homes may be located in neighborhoods of any socioeconomic status.

Residents of group homes usually have some type of chronic mental disorder that impairs their ability to live independently. Many residents also have physical disabilities such as impairments of vision communication, or ambulation. These individuals require continual assistance to complete daily living and self-care tasks. Some also require supervision due to behavior that may be dangerous to self or others, such as aggression or a tendency to run away.

Although most group homes provide long-term care, some residents eventually acquire the necessary skills to move to more independent living situations. Group homes for children are usually temporary placements, providing care until a foster family can be secured. Others may return to their natural families. Occasionally, halfway homes for people recently released from prison or discharged from a substance abuse program may also be referred to as group homes. These types of group homes are also transitory in nature.

History and mission

The development of group homes occurred in response to the deinstitutionalization movement of the 1960s and 1970s. As psychiatric hospitals closed, discharged individuals needed places to live. Group homes were designed to provide care in the least restrictive environment and to integrate individuals with disabilities into the community, reducing stigma and improving quality of life. The environment of a group home was intended to simulate typical family life as much as possible.

Since the passage of the Community Mental Health Centers Act in 1963, grants have been available to group homes. State and federal funds such as the Medicaid Home and Community-Based Waiver continue to support the majority of group homes. However, some homes operate on donations from private citizens or civic and religious organizations. Most group homes are owned by private rather than governmental organizations, and can be either non-profit or for-profit organizations. Group homes are considered more cost effective compared to institutional care. Unfortunately, the number of available group homes has not always matched need, resulting in homelessness or re-hospitalization for some individuals.

One of the goals of group home living is to increase the independence of residents. Group home staff members teach residents daily living and self-care skills, providing as little assistance as possible. Daily living skills include meal preparation, laundry, housecleaning, home maintenance, money management, and appropriate social interactions. Self-care skills include bathing or showering, dressing, toileting, eating, and taking prescribed medications.

Staff also assure that residents receive necessary services from community service providers, including medical care, physical therapy, occupational therapy, vocational training, education, and mental health services. Most group home residents are assigned a case manager from a community mental health center or other government agency who oversees their care. Case managers review group home documentation regarding skills learned and services received, and make recommendations for adjustments in care.

The NIMBY phenomenon

Unfortunately, group homes have received much opposition from communities. NIMBY (acronym for Not In My Backyard) describes the common reaction of community residents when they discover that a group home is targeted for their neighborhood. Current research suggests that protests frequently involve concerns over personal security, declining property values, or a generalized threat to the neighborhood's quality. Some researchers believe that prejudiced attitudes such as ignorance, fear, and distrust are the true reasons for protest.

Usually, neighborhood opposition is unsuccessful due to provisions of the Fair Housing Act of 1968. However, such opposition can be detrimental to the goal of integrating residents into the community. The NIMBY phenomenon is also a concern because as deinstitutionalization continues, the need for additional group homes increases. Statistics show that between 1987 and 1999, the use of group homes serving individuals with developmental disabilities and containing six residents or less increased by 240%.

Social service workers are constantly looking for ways to address the NIMBY phenomenon. Some research has suggested that community concerns decrease with time as community members become familiar with group home residents. A recent study proposed that opposition can be decreased by providing advanced notice of plans for a group home, as well as adequate information and discussion about expectations.

Factors affecting group home success

Initially, many people were skeptical about the adequacy of group home care compared to psychiatric hospitals or other institutions. Over the past 25 years, many studies have examined the impact of group home care on residents. These studies have consistently shown increases in adaptive behavior, productivity, community integration, and level of independence.

Risks involved in successfully transitioning an individual to a group home include psychological deterioration

Group homes are facilities in residential communities that house people with physical or mental disabilities or other challenges. The group home residents pictured above live in a teen group home in Massachusetts for low-income mothers and their children. (AP Photo/Lisa Poole. Photo reproduced by permission.)
Group homes are facilities in residential communities that house people with physical or mental disabilities or other challenges. The group home residents pictured above live in a teen group home in Massachusetts for low-income mothers and their children.
(AP Photo/Lisa Poole. Photo reproduced by permission.)
such as severe cognitive or physical impairments, physical deterioration that includes being non-ambulatory, or mortality issues such as being age 70 or older.

Before considering group home placement—especially for those in the high-risk category—extensive planning should be conducted. A complete assessment plan of the individual's needs should specify which agency will be responsible for meeting medical needs, particularly in the event of a crisis. The individual's strengths should be incorporated into the plan whenever possible. For example, if a supportive family is an identified strength, the preferred group home should be close in proximity to facilitate family visits.

Other factors that contribute to group home success are a small staff-to-resident ratio, well-trained staff, and a home-like atmosphere. As with any type of organization, some group homes are better run than others. A careful investigation into a home's procedures is recommended. Research suggests that individuals with severe cognitive impairments often experience a period of disorientation, and may need additional support or supervision for the first few months while adjusting to their new surroundings. Pre-placement visits and discussion can reduce anxiety for the future resident.

See also Case management

Resources

BOOKS

Robinson, Julia W., and Travis Thompson. "Stigma and Architecture." In Enabling Environments: Measuring the Impact of Environment on Disability and Rehabilitation, edited by Edward Steinfeld and G. Scott Danford. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 1999.

Udell, Leslie. "Supports in Small Group Home Settings." In Dementia, Aging, and Intellectual Disabilities: A Handbook, edited by Matthew P. Janicki and Arthur J. Dalton. Philadelphia: Brunner/Mazel, Inc., 1999.

PERIODICALS

Anderson, George M. "Of Many Things." America 185, no. 8 (2001): 2.

Anderson, Lynda, Robert Prouty, and K. Charlie Lakin. "Parallels in Size of Residential Settings and Use of Medicaid-Financed Programs." Mental Retardation 38, no. 5 (2000): 468-471.

Ducharme, Joseph M., Larry Williams, Anne Cummings, Pina Murray, and Terry Spencer. "General Case Quasi-Pyramidal Staff Training to Promote Generalization of Teaching Skills in Supervisory and Direct-Care Staff." Behavior Modification 25, no. 2 (2001): 233-254.

Kim, Dong Soo. "Another Look at the NIMBY Phenomenon." Health & Social Work 25, no. 2 (2000): 146-148.

Piat, Myra. "The NIMBY Phenomenon: Community Residents' Concerns About Housing for Deinstitutionalized People." Health & Social Work 25, no. 2 (2000): 127-138.

Rauktis, Mary Elizabeth. "The Impact of Deinstitutionalization on the Seriously and Persistently Mentally Ill Elderly: A One-Year Follow-Up." Journal of Mental Health and Aging 7, no. 3 (2001): 335-348.

Spreat, Scott, and James W. Conroy. "Community Placement for Persons with Significant Cognitive Challenges: An Outcome Analysis." The Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps 26, no. 2 (2001): 106-113.

Whittaker, James K. "The Future of Residential Group Care." Child Welfare 79, no. 1 (2000): 59-74.

ORGANIZATIONS

The ARC National Headquarters. 1010 Wayne Avenue, Suite 650, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910. (301) 565-3842. <http://www.thearc.org> .

Child Welfare League of America-Headquarters. 440 First Street, NW, Third Floor, Washington, DC 20001-2085. (202) 638-2952. <http://cwla.org> .

National Institute of Mental Health. 600 Executive Boulevard, Room 8184, MSC 9663, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-9663. (301) 443-4513. <http://www.nimh.nih.gov> .

Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity. Room 5116, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 Seventh Street, SW, Washington, DC 20410-2000. (202) 708-2878. <http://www.hsh.com> .

Sandra L. Friedrich, M.A.



User Contributions:

Eileen
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Mar 2, 2009 @ 2:14 pm
I live in Calif. Where do I start in trying to open up a group home? Someone told me to call the State. But what do I look for. The are many State numbers.
pat polinario
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Aug 11, 2009 @ 7:19 pm
i'm a personal support worker with lots of experience with elderly and special needs,i want to start a home care as my own business,how do i start?
Youlanda
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Aug 26, 2009 @ 10:10 am
My parents have a group home in Georgia where they attend to two ladies that are mentally challenged. I am interested in starting this program in mississipp but I need some information on government grants that would help develope this program in our state or any information on this topic. Thank You.
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Feb 3, 2010 @ 10:22 pm
HELLO pls give me some advice how to start this business. Im really interested to start this program for the mentally ill . children. I really appreciate your advice thank you emma
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Jan 7, 2011 @ 12:12 pm
I am looking for information on how to get my 45 year old brother in law, who is mentally handicap from a brain tumor, into a group home in Phila. In NJ we have DDD but I can not find anywhere to go in Pa and his case manager has no idea or will help.
Thank you
Michele
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May 28, 2011 @ 8:20 pm
I am looking for information also on opening a group home in mississippi for teens. I know that there are a lot of group homes here but I have been working for teens most of my life and I do love my job (working with teens). I want to start my own business and want to know is there any government funding to help me get started.
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Jun 24, 2011 @ 3:15 pm
hi, i'm interested to start a group home for mentally ill. I really need some advice and what agency will i look for to know the step by step procedure for this kind of business. Looking forward for your help and suggestions..thanks
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Jul 9, 2011 @ 3:15 pm
I am looking for information on opening a group home in Milwaukee,WI for teens.Who do I need to contact about this kind of business for advice and is there any government funding to help me get started. THANK YOU for any help
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Sep 13, 2011 @ 2:14 pm
I am a elementary special education teacher. I am also a single mother of a child with Autism. I live in Texas and I would love to open a group home, but I have no idea where to begin. If you could please give me some information on governement grants that will help me accomplish this. Thank you in advance for your help.
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Oct 31, 2011 @ 2:14 pm
hi, i'm interested to start a group home for mentally ill. I really need some advice and what agency will i look for to know the step by step procedure for this kind of business. I'ave found for info for other States, but looking for Pittsburgh, PA areas. Looking forward for your help and suggestions..thanks. Thank you.
Terrell newton
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Aug 21, 2014 @ 4:16 pm
I have a rental property that I want to convert over to a group home . Is there any grants that will help me with any cosmetic of the house to pass inspection and who do I contact to get approval ?
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Oct 21, 2014 @ 1:13 pm
I live in Florida. I am trying to get my adopted daughter who has personality disorder into a group home for adults. We are not able to take care of her anymore. How do you get help from the state to pay for this?

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